Research Articles

Permanent URI for this collection


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Item
    Trusted sources of information on COVID-19 vaccines during the pandemic in Uganda. A crosssectional study
    (Research squares, 2023-10-17) Oloya, Johnson Nyeko; Alema, Nelson Onira; Okot, Christopher; Olal, Emmanuel; Ikoona, Eric Nzirakaindi; Oyat, Freddy Wathum Drinkwater; Steven, Baguma; Ochula, Denish Omoya; Olwedo, Patrick Odong; Pebolo, Francis Pebalo; Atim, Pamela Okot; Okot, Godfrey Smart; Nantale, Ritah; Aloyo, Judith; Kitara, David Lagoro
    Background. COVID-19 has dramatically impacted communities worldwide, especially in developing countries. To successfully control the COVID-19 pandemic, more than 80% vaccination coverage was required, and the flow of correct information to the population was critical. However, misinformation and disinformation could impact this, increasing COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in some communities. Several studies have assessed the effect of misinformation and disinformation on COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and other responses to the pandemic in the African continent. Thus, the most trusted sources of information on COVID-19 vaccines to the population is critical for successfully managing and controlling the pandemic. This study aimed to assess the most trusted sources of information on COVID-19 vaccines during the pandemic in northern Uganda.
  • Item
    Nodding syndrome in Ugandan children—clinical features, brain imaging and complications: a case series
    (BMJ Open, 2013-04-08) Idro, Richard; Opoka, Robert Opika; Aanyu, Hellen T; Piloya-Were, Theresa; Namusoke, Hanifa; Musoke, Sarah Bonita; Nalugya, Joyce; Bangirana, Paul; Mwaka, Amos Deogratius; White, Steven; Chong, Kling; Atai-Omoruto, Anne D; Mworozi, Edison; Nankunda, Jolly; Kiguli, Sarah; Aceng, Jane Ruth; Tumwine, James K; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina
    Objectives: Nodding syndrome is a devastating neurological disorder of uncertain aetiology affecting children in Africa. There is no diagnostic test, and risk factors and symptoms that would allow early diagnosis are poorly documented. This study aimed to describe the clinical, electrophysiological and brain imaging(MRI) features and complications of nodding syndrome in Ugandan children. Design: Case series. Participants: 22 children with nodding syndrome brought to Mulago National Referral Hospital for assessment. Outcome measures: Clinical features, physical and functional disabilities, EEG and brain MRI findings and a staging system with a progressive development of symptoms and complications. Results: The median age of symptom onset was 6 (range 4–10) years and median duration of symptoms was 8.5 (range 2–11) years. 16 of 22 families reported multiple affected children. Physical manifestations and complications included stunting, wasting, lip changes and gross physical deformities. The bone age was delayed by 2 (range 1–6) years. There was peripheral muscle wasting and progressive generalised wasting. Four children had nodding as the only seizure type;18 in addition had myoclonic, absence and/or generalised tonic–clonic seizures developing 1–3 years after the onset of illness. Psychiatric manifestations included wandering, aggression, depression and disordered perception. Cognitive assessment in three children demonstrated profound impairment. The EEG was abnormal in all, suggesting symptomatic generalised epilepsy in the majority. There were different degrees of cortical and cerebellar atrophy on brain MRI, but no hippocampal changes. Five stages with worsening physical, EEG and brain imaging features were identified: a prodrome, the development of head nodding and cognitive decline, other seizure types, multiple complications and severe disability. Conclusions: Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder that may be characterised as probably symptomatic generalised epilepsy. Clinical manifestations and complications develop in stages
  • Item
    High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis among Children with Nodding Syndrome (NS) in Northern Uganda: Case Series
    (British Journal of Medicine & Medical Research, 2013-11-25) Kitara, David Lagoro; Mwaka, Amos Deogratious; Kigonya, Edward
    Aims: To conduct a hormonal and biochemical studies on 10 patients with diagnosis of probable Nodding Syndrome (NS). Study Design: A cross-sectional study Place and Duration of Study: Atanga Health Center III in Pader District in Northern Uganda in September 2012. Methodology: We recruited consecutively 10 children with probable Nodding Syndrome who had been admitted for symptomatic management of seizures, injuries resulting from falls and nutritional rehabilitation. History, physical examinations, biophysical measurements (anthropometry) and blood investigations including serum electrolytes, liver function tests, thyroid hormones and vitamin D assays. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Institutional Review Committee. Results: All children had severely low serum calcium and bicarbonate levels and a high Anion Gap. Thyroid hormones and vitamin D assays were largely normal. Conclusion: Children with Nodding Syndrome undergoing treatment for seizure control and nutritional rehabilitation have high Anion Gap metabolic acidosis.
  • Item
    Factors Associated With Mortality Among the COVID-19 Patients Treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital: A Retrospective Study
    (Frontiers Public Health, 2022-04-11) Baguma, Steven; Okot, Christopher; Onira Alema, Nelson; Paska, Apiyo; Layet, Paska; Acullu, Denis; Nyeko Oloya, Johnson; Ochula, Denis; Atim, Pamela; Odong Olwedo, Patrick; Okot, Smart Godfrey; Oyat, Freddy Wathum Drinkwater; Oola, Janet; Ikoona, Eric Nzirakaindi; Aloyo, Judith; Kitara, David Lagoro
    Background: The advent of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused millions of deaths worldwide. As of December 2021, there is inadequate data on the outcome of hospitalized patients suffering from COVID-19 in Africa. This study aimed at identifying factors associated with hospital mortality in patients who suffered from COVID-19 at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital in Northern Uganda from March 2020 to October 2021. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective cohort study in patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital in Northern Uganda. Socio-demographic characteristics, clinical presentations, co-morbidities, duration of hospital stay, and treatments were analyzed, and factors associated with the odds of mortality were determined. Results: Of the 664 patients treated, 661 (99.5%) were unvaccinated, 632 (95.2%) recovered and 32 (4.8%) died. Mortality was highest in diabetics 11 (34.4%), cardiovascular diseases 12 (37.5%), hypertensives 10 (31.3%), females 18 (56.3%), ≥50-year-olds 19 (59.4%), no formal education 14 (43.8%), peasant farmers 12 (37.5%) and those who presented with difficulty in breathing/shortness of breath and chest pain 32 (100.0%), oxygen saturation (SpO2) at admission <80 4 (12.5%), general body aches and pains 31 (96.9%), tiredness 30 (93.8%) and loss of speech and movements 11 (34.4%). The independent factors associated with mortality among the COVID-19 patients were females AOR = 0.220, 95%CI: 0.059–0.827; p = 0.030; Diabetes mellitus AOR = 9.014, 95%CI: 1.726–47.067; p = 0.010; Ages of 50 years and above AOR = 2.725, 95%CI: 1.187–6.258; p = 0.018; tiredness AOR = 0.059, 95%CI: 0.009–0.371; p < 0.001; general body aches and pains AOR = 0.066, 95%CI: 0.007–0.605; p = 0.020; loss of speech and movement AOR = 0.134, 95%CI: 0.270–0.660; p = 0.010 and other co-morbidities AOR = 6.860, 95%CI: 1.309–35.957; p = 0.020. Conclusion: The overall Gulu Regional Hospital mortality was 32/664 (4.8%). Older age, people with diabetics, females, other comorbidities, severe forms of the disease, and those admitted to HDU were significant risk factors associated with hospital mortality. More efforts should be made to provide “additional social protection” to the most vulnerable population to avoid preventable morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in Northern Uganda.